Donald Trump has pleaded not guilty to historic charges of mishandling sensitive files at a federal court in Miami, Florida.
Mr Trump is the first US president – current or former – to be hit with a federal criminal indictment.
Arms crossed, in a dark suit and red tie, he sat in stone-faced silence for his second court appearance this year.
The Republican later travelled to his golf club in Bedminster, New Jersey, where he addressed supporters.
Against a backdrop of American flags, Mr Trump, who is the frontrunner for the 2024 Republican presidential nomination, struck a defiant tone and told the assembled crowd he had “every right” to hold the classified documents, but “hadn’t had a chance to go through all the boxes”.
He said he followed the law and went on to list series of unsubstantiated claims as well as grievances against President Joe Biden and his former rival Hillary Clinton.
Earlier in the day before leaving Miami, Mr Trump, on his social media platform Truth Social, thanked the city for “such a warm welcome on such a sad day for our country”.
Just hours before, in a 13th-floor room of a federal courthouse in downtown Miami, a sombre, subdued Mr Trump looked on while his lawyer entered a plea of not guilty on 37 counts of illegally retaining classified documents and obstructing the government’s efforts to get them back.
“We most certainly enter a plea of not guilty,” the attorney, Todd Blanche, told the judge.
Mr Trump’s co-defendant, Walt Nauta – a close aide charged with six criminal counts in the case – was sitting at the same table as the former president.
On the opposite side of the room sat the entire prosecution team, including special counsel Jack Smith, who announced the indictment last week.
The former president, who turned 77 on Wednesday, was allowed to leave court without any restrictions to domestic or international travel. Prosecutors told Magistrate Judge Jonathan Goodman the defendant was not considered a flight risk.
But Mr Trump will not be allowed to discuss the case with Mr Nauta.
After the hearing, the Republican flashed supporters a thumbs-up as his motorcade left the courthouse. As they drove away, an anti-Trump protester dressed in a prison jumpsuit ran into the street in front of the motorcade before he was pushed away by security – perhaps the most unruly moment of a largely peaceful day.
Mr Trump and his security detail travelled directly to Versailles, a popular Cuban restaurant in Miami’s Little Havana, where he was greeted by a throng of supporters who lined up for photos with the former president.
He appeared to take part in a prayer with some patrons, and was treated to a chorus of Happy Birthday to You.